In 2013, Parties to the United Framework Convention on Climate Change were invited to prepare and communicate their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) under a 2015 international climate change agreement.
International assessment and review (A&R) of INDCs can help to ensure that these contributions are in line with internationally agreed objectives and principles. A&R can further help to establish and enhance transparency, trust and accountability between Parties by creating a shared understanding of Parties’ intended contributions, as well as the underlying information, data and assumptions. Moreover, A&R can help to increase ambition by providing an opportunity for feedback and exchange of ideas and approaches, and by encouraging additional reciprocal actions.
The project examines the options for A&R, with a focus on the following questions:
- What exactly should be assessed and reviewed? And how should A&R account for the possibility that contributions may cover not only mitigation, but also means of implementation and adaptation?
- Should A&R processes be different for different Parties, and if so, how?
- Against which criteria should contributions be assessed and reviewed?
- When should A&R be carried out?
- How should A&R be organized, and which actors should be involved in it?
- How should A&R feed into new contributions?
The project draws on three main sources:
- Analysis of existing review mechanisms both in the UNFCCC and elsewhere,
- Analysis of Parties’ submissions and statements in the negotiations on the 2015 agreement
- Expert Interviews
The project is carried out in collaboration with the Stockholm Environment Institute and the German Development Institut. It is commissioned and funded by the Nordic Working Group for Global Climate Negotiations (NOAK).