Field campaigns were conducted to determine indoor emissions of carbonaceous aerosols and other air pollutants from household fuel burning in southwest China. “1-h peak” concentrations of CO, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 14.0 ppm, 200, 220, and 260 µg/m3 for wood and 10.3 ppm, 80, 110, and 180 µg/m3 for coal, respectively. Daily average levels of CO, PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 were 5.7 ppm, 100, 110, and 160 µg/m3 for wood and 6.0 ppm, 50, 70, and 100 µg/m3 for coal, respectively. For wood and coal, particle size distribution show a prominent Aitken mode with peaks at around 40–80 nm. Emission factors of BC and OC were 0.57 and 2.69 g/kg for wood and 0.01 and 0.31 g/kg for coal, respectively. The total BC emissions from wood and coal (anthracite) burning in China were 63.3 Gg in 2000 and 81.6 Gg in 2005, respectively.