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Tough justice for small nations: How strategic behaviour can influence the enforcement of the Kyoto Protocol

Hagem, Cathrine, Mæstad, Ottar, Steffen Kallbekken, Hege Westskog (Working Paper;2003:01)

This paper looks at how strategic considerations may play a role in the decision of whether or not to impose sanctions on Parties who are not in compliance with their commitments to the Kyoto Protocol. A member of the Enforcement Branch might have an incentive to vote for sanctions towards one non-c...

Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

Wang, Qidong, He, Kebin, Li, Tiejun, Fu, Lixin (Working Paper;2002:04)

This paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission pollution in Beijing, and discusses the following mitigation strategies: improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through, e.g., Inspection/Maintenance (I/M), reno...

Should developing countries take on binding commitments in a climate agreement? A cost-benefit analysis

Steffen Kallbekken, Hege Westskog (Working Paper;2003:09)

This paper explores the costs and benefits for all parties to a future climate agreement of developing countries taking on binding commitments. Such commitments would allow developing countries to participate in emissions trading, which has significantly lower transaction costs than the present Clea...

People's opinion of climate policy - Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

Marino, Marit Sjøvaag, Ericson, Torgeir, Bjørge, Nils Erik, Garnåsjordet, Per Arild, Karlsen, Håkon T, Rees, Daniel, Randers, Jørgen (Working Paper;2012:03)

How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this ar...

Sosioøkonomiske virkninger av klimaendringer: Metoder for å anslå virkninger på aggregert nivå

Hans Asbjørn Aaheim (Working Paper;2003:05)

I denne rapporten drøftes metoder for å beregne samfunnsøkonomiske virkninger av klimaendringer med eksempler fra Hordaland fylke. Utgangspunktet for beregningene er anslag over klimaendringer fra RegClim prosjektet. Med bakgrunn i kunnskap om sammenhengen mellom økonomisk aktivitet og klima på disa...

Assessing compliance with the Kyoto Protocol: Expert reviews, inverse modelling, or both?

Rypdal, Kristin, Stordal, Frode, Jan S. Fuglestvedt, Terje K. Berntsen (Working Paper;2003:07)

The Kyoto Protocol has an ambitious reporting and review system to assess nations’ compliance with their emission commitments. This system requires considerable resources to assure that the Parties report accurate emission inventory data. In spite of this, there is a danger that Parties consciously...

Can geological carbon storage be competitive?

Steffen Kallbekken, Asbjørn Torvanger (Working Paper;2004:05)

In this paper we review the literature on the costs and benefits of geological carbon storage and the estimates of greenhouse gas permit prices under the Kyoto Protocol commitment period and beyond. Combining these results for a set of circumstances, we find that in the near-term Carbon Capture and...

What's in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research

O'Brien, Karen, Eriksen, Siri E H, Schjolden, Ane, Nygaard, Lynn P. (Working Paper;2004:04)

In this paper, we discuss two competing interpretations of vulnerability in the climate change literature and consider the implications for both research and policy. The first interpretation, which can be referred to as the “end point” approach, views vulnerability as a residual of climate change im...

Costs Savings of a Flexible Multi-Gas Climate Policy

Godal, Odd, Hans Asbjørn Aaheim, Jan S. Fuglestvedt (Working Paper;2004:03)

Current climate policies are based on the use of the Global Warming Potential (GWP) index to compare various greenhouse gases. Yet, from an economic point of view, more efficient methods exist. The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential cost savings from applying an efficient and more fl...

Green Electricity Market Development in the United States: Policy Analysis and Case Studies

Menz, Fredric C. (Working Paper;2004:02)

This paper reviews green electricity development in the United States, focusing on policies that have been enacted to promote green electricity. Green power is a term that refers to electricity generated from particular renewable energy sources including wind and solar power, geothermal, low-impact...