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Market power with interdependent demand: Sale of emission permits and natural gas from the Former Soviet Union

Hagem, Cathrine, Mæstad, Ottar, Steffen Kallbekken, Hege Westskog (Working Paper;2004:01)

With implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, the Former Soviet Union countries, and Russia in particular, will most likely be able to exert market power in the emission permit market. However, since these countries are also big exporters of fossil fuels, their incentives to boost the permit price may...

Dominant agents and intertemporal emissions trading

Hagem, Cathrine, Hege Westskog (Working Paper;2004:11)

In this paper we analyze how restricting intertemporal trading by prohibiting borrowing of emission permits affects the ability of a dominant agent to exploit its market power, and the consequences this has for the cost-effectiveness of implementing an emissions target. We show that the monopolist c...

Climate change impacts on agricultural productivity in Norway

Twena, Michelle, Romstad, Bård, Asbjørn Torvanger (Working Paper;2004:10)

Climate change is likely to affect agricultural productivity. In this study, a biophysical statistical model is used to analyze the relationship between yields of potatoes, barley, oats and wheat per decare, and temperature (growing degree days) and precipitation, for the period 1958–2001 at county...

Shaming and Framing: Norwegian Nongovernmental Organizations in the Climate Change Negotiations

Tjernshaugen, Andreas, Lee, Ho-Ching (Working Paper;2004:09)

This paper discusses the strategies chosen by Norwegian-based environmental non-governmental organizations(ENGOs) and their international allies in the Climate Action Network (CAN) in seeking to influence Norway’s behaviour in the UN climate change negotiations. We focus on ENGO activities at the ma...

The cost of sectoral differentiation: The case of the EU emissions trading scheme

Steffen Kallbekken (Working Paper;2004:08)

It is often assumed in the economic literature that the Kyoto Protocol will be implemented through a cost-efficient, comprehensive emissions trading system. However, the general experience from implementation of environmental policies suggests that governments will adopt a more differentiated approa...

The Price of Non-compliance with the Kyoto Protocol: The Remarkable Case of Norway

Hovi, Jon, Steffen Kallbekken (Working Paper;2004:07)

To induce compliance, an international enforcement mechanism needs to authorize the use of punitive consequences against a non-compliant country. However, it is reasonable to require that such consequences do not cause considerable damage to other countries as well. The compliance mechanism of the K...

The Theory of Full International Cooperation: An Experimental Evaluation

Helland, Leif, Hovi, Jon (Working Paper;2004:06)

The concept of renegotiation-proof equilibrium has become a cornerstone in recent game theoretic reasoning about the stability of international environmental agreements. Applying this solution concept to a linear version of the infinitely repeated N-person Prisoners’ Dilemma, Scott Barrett has been...

Why the CDM can reduce carbon leakage

Steffen Kallbekken (Working Paper;2006:02)

Carbon leakage is an important concern because it can reduce the environmental effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The Clean Development Mechanism, one of the flexibility mechanisms allowed under the protocol, has the potential to reduce carbon leakage significantly because it reduces the relative...

Nuclear Energy: Rise, Fall and Resurrection

Twena, Michelle (Working Paper;2006:01)

This paper charts the rise, fall and potential resurrection of the civilian nuclear power industry over the past fifty years in the UK. The role of actors, interests, institutions and ideas are explored using Baumgartner and Jones’s punctuated equilibrium model of agenda-setting. The study provide...

Analysis of EU member states' national allocation plans

Kolshus, Hans H., Asbjørn Torvanger (Working Paper;2005:02)

The European Union’s (EU) emissions trading scheme (ETS) started on 01 January 2005. The ETS covers CO2 emissions from large emitters in the power and heat generation industry and selected energy-intensive industrial sectors. The EU member states have developed national allocation plans (NAP) statin...